How to survive a volcano eruption: signs and what to do

How to survive a volcano eruption: signs and what to do

How to survive a volcano eruption: signs and what to do

If an elderly tourist gets lost in the eruption zone of a volcano, there is a risk that always in active and sleeping volcanoes is always present. A volcano can break out without significant signs, although that is a rarity. Nevertheless, many holidaymakers consider the worst if the resort is in a volcanic area. The most beautiful regions and islands are not rarely in sight of a volcano. Although in a violent volcanic eruption, personal actions seem meaningless, and luck largely determines whether one survives, there are many important things to recognize and then take action. To play the hero, and think “that’s all the more,” does not increase the chances of life at all. Do not panic either. Whether or not a volcano is bursting out.

Types of volcanoes
There are many types of volcanoes. Its shape usually has the manner of bursting and the consistency of the lava . Shield volcanoes are, for example, relatively flat; they have a sloping slope with easy flowing lava. On the other hand, a stratovolcano has steep slopes, with the eruptions often being very explosive due to the build-up of pressure caused by thick liquid magma that was initially sealed as a sealing plug in the crater pipe.

Magma and lava
Simply put, a volcano is formed when molten rock, gas and solid matter reaches the earth’s surface deeply from the earth . Volcanic activity is almost always present in places where tectonic plates “wring” and grind over, below and below each other. Eronder is the temperature of the rock so high that magma forms, either molten rock. As a result, reservoirs form either magma chambers.

Volcano mountain
The upward pressure towards the earth’s crust is enormously high. If the earth’s crust is relatively thin or geologically weak or weak in certain places , such as between two tectonic plates (cracking), volcanic activity will develop. Liquid rock appearing on the surface is called lava, combined with gas eruptions. After the lava has reached the earth’s surface through the fracture, cooling takes place and forms a volcano mountain. Its shape depends on the manner of eruption.

Sleeping volcano
In a sleeping volcano, the gas pressure in the gastric chamber to the ground surface is so low that no eruption can occur. The volcano then sleeps. The kegellava has cooled down, a plug has been formed in the crater pipe. Nevertheless, the pressure in the gastric reservoir over time, often after hundreds or even thousands of years, may be so high that new eruptions follow.

A volcano is always dangerous
Both dormant and active volcanoes, although those chances are small, can become active without significant signs . As a holidaymaker, that can of course be a worrying thought. In life, however, the disadvantages of issues are always weighed against the benefits, even when it comes to holiday destinations where there is a risk, in this case a volcano eruption. In addition, an ongoing eruption attracts a lot of tourists who want to follow natural violence from a safe distance. Volcanic explosions can also be dangerous at relatively long distances, thinking of ash clouds and clouds that temporarily disturb air traffic worldwide.

Signs of a volcano eruption
As an unsuspecting holidaymaker who does not look for the danger but still balances a very special holiday destination near a volcano, it is important to recognize the signs of a volcano eruption. One of the ‘omina’ is the seismic activity, the hardly noticeable earthquakes (bevingen) up to the more disturbing earthquakes. It is important to inform locally about the volcanic seismic state.

Early Warnings
Know that anywhere in the world all volcanoes are closely monitored by seismologists and other scientists. They leave early warnings with possibly the advice to the authorities to evacuate the population. In this respect, the holiday resorts also have a high priority. As a tourist, you will, by definition, quickly find out if there is anything wrong with the volcano that you live in. Characteristic signs of a possible eruption include:

  • Rubbing sounds in the volcano area (often literally under your feet).
  • Sulfur scent that rises from streams and streams in the area.
  • A continuous smoke cloud around the volcano cone.
  • Sometimes the volcano pushes gas and hot ash out of the crater.
  • The air becomes dustier, resembling fog. In reality, the pulp dust is concerned.

What to do with a volcano eruption
If you take seriously the advice and warnings of the authorities and other authorities, you are hardly at risk of being robbed by a volcano eruption. Certainly if you are proactive in nature and you are well aware of the signs. However, there are people who want to have a methodical, systematic approach ready for each possible future and unlikely event . In this case, about a volcano, practically in front of the door, which leads a “own life” and attracts nothing from science, concluding that there are no signs that an eruption will occur in the near future.

Emergency plan
First of all, it’s important to know if there are any signs of an upcoming volcanic eruption. Combined with the authorities’ warnings, it is often a matter of departure immediately before travel is made more difficult by more people who are convinced that it is better to go. Especially when the first signs of panic are visible in the area. If it really misses and you can not escapeAn eruption, or if it is already in progress, will also keep the population informed of local emergency plans using sirens, radio and television. In any case, advice comes from within, does not go to a particular area or evacuate. Always keep up to date with the evacuation procedures in a volcanically active area.

Survival Chances
If you are in the midst of a volcano eruption, and avoid escaping seems impossible, the following advice will increase your chances of survival:

  • Plan an escape route in advance. Use a checklist so every group or family member knows what to do. Add a necessity list and complete a stock, think of a detailed map and emergency rations.
  • Use any vehicle to leave the area. However, know that the wheels of a car can stuck in the axle, which will always form thicker layers. If you eventually have to flee the area on foot, walk as quickly as possible to a road leading from the affected area.
  • Climb in the event of a lava flow to the higher area.
  • Mount a helmet (engine helmet in case of explosive eruptions). Or a hat filled with newsprint if it can not.
  • Protect yourself from the pumice fabric, tie a wet scarf or handkerchief for your mouth and nose. In any event, ensure that you breathe slightly filtered air.
  • You can possibly protect your eyes from dust using a diving goggle.

Pyroclastic current
Local authorities have usually made shelters available for emergencies. Is not that the case? Then search for vacant buildings, unless there are lava flows and flies.

  • Know what a nué ardent (pyroclastic flow) entails. It is a life-threatening situation in which a glowing cloud of dust and ashes with a speed of more than one hundred and fifty km / u decreases the slope. Unprotected in the job of a nuée ardente , the survival chances are almost nil.
  • A nué ardent is absolutely deadly, although it usually does not take much longer than thirty seconds. The only way to survive that is to jump into the water. Stay underwater for half an hour or look for an underground rocky shelter and hope best.
  • Pyroclastic currents are very devastating. The houses are not resistant to them, they fly as flares are on fire.

As soon as the projectiles hail, you protect yourself by sitting down on the ground, back to the volcano . Put a backpack on your head, if necessary. Protect your body with whatever is available.

  • Protect yourself from toxic gases by continuing to keep running (toxic gas falls to the ground).
  • Never try to cross a lava stream, even if the lava has cooled down in the meantime. The survival chances are very small in that case.
  • Volcano is heavy. Eventually, the roofs of houses will collapse, including in your holiday resort. Always follow the advice for evacuation and join the other evacuations.
  • Measuring areas where the ash rain is very heavy, pay attention to the wind direction and the weather in general.
  • If the volcanic eruption is over and it’s quiet, it’s better not to enter the area anymore. Continuation bursts can be more intense than the first you fled.

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